In case of damage to the rectum, tenesmus is formed - painful urge to defecate with a small amount of stool. Also, a severe form of balantidiasis is characterized by the development of cachexia - exhaustion and weight loss. Another complication of balantidiasis is paraproctitis - inflammation of the subcutaneous fat around the rectum. It is associated with the activation of secondary infection in the presence of ulcers on the intestinal mucosa. The treatment of such a complication is only surgical - opening and drainage of the purulent process, followed by antibiotic therapy.
When making a diagnosis, one must take into account the history of the disease: staying in epidemically unfavorable areas for balantidiasis, contact with animals or a sick person, drinking unboiled water and unwashed foods.
In the blood test, moderate anemia (decrease in hemoglobin), eosinophilia (increase in the number of eosinophils), and an increase in ESR are noted.
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In severe cases, severe anemia is formed (hemoglobin level below 90 g / l), the number of leukocytes increases due to an increase in neutrophils. In feces, a vegetative (adult)j) the form of the parasite. In the presence of blood in the stool (hemocolitis), children are diagnosed with other conditions: Simultaneously with antiparasitic agents, symptomatic therapy aimed at detoxification is indicated. To do this, perform oral rehydration or intravenous infusion of Cozaar solutions - rehydron, oralit, etc. Such infusions allow you to restore the water-salt balance and normalize metabolism.
The effectiveness of the treatment of balantidiasis is assessed by the disappearance of symptoms of intoxication, the restoration of bowel function, the absence of blood and mucus in the feces, and the improvement of the general blood test. Dispensary observation lasts 6-12 months. In this case, the patient must visit an infectious disease specialist every month and donate feces for examination for the presence of parasites. After the end of the observation period, with negative results of stool tests on balantidia, a note is made about the removal of the patient from the dispensary register.
Personal prevention is based on the observance of Cozaar of personal hygiene, the processing of vegetables and fruits, the fight against flies, the use of boiled water. In order to treat the toilet, toys, pots, specialized disinfectants are used: bactol forte, ecobreeze, a-des, etc. They are available in the form of concentrates and require the preparation of working solutions in accordance with the instructions. Before draining into the sewer, feces must also be disinfected. These precautions help to avoid infection if there is a person in the family with balantidiasis.
To relieve pain, doctors prescribe antispasmodics. In severe cases, it is possible to use blood products to correct severe anemia and dysproteinemia (low levels of losartan in the blood). With complications - peritonitis, intestinal perforation, paroproctitis - surgical intervention is indicated.
- Public prevention of balantidiasis is aimed at preventing contamination of water bodies and soil with infected human and animal feces, especially on pig farms, compliance with the rules for the construction of livestock farms and toilets, following sanitary and hygienic standards while caring for pigs, disinfecting their feces, timely diagnosis and treatment of people with balantidiasis.
- Balantidiasis is a type of intestinal infection caused by ciliary ciliates (balantidia).
- The disease is characterized by a clinical picture that accompanies inflammatory and ulcerative processes in the large intestine. Diagnosis in pathology is complex, based on the use of laboratory and instrumental methods.
- Due to the fact that balantidiasis is severe, therapy should be carried out under the close supervision of a physician. Otherwise, if self-treatment is allowed, the patient may die.
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- Most often, residents of the southern regions suffer from the disease, as well as in areas where pig breeding is widespread.
- Balantidiasis is a zoonotic protozoal infection that occurs with symptoms of ulcerative hemorrhagic colitis and general intoxication of the body.
- Pathology is characterized by an extremely severe course, and if the treatment is not started in time, it is accompanied by a high percentage of mortality.
- The spread of the disease is primarily facilitated by the low level of Cozaar of patients who are carriers of balantidia.
Balantidia cysts are round in shape and approximately 50 µm in diameter. They are able to maintain their viability outside the host organism for 3-4 weeks. The vegetative form of balantidia is characterized by the following parameters and features: length: from 30 to 150 microns; width - from 30 to 100 microns; the surface of the body of the parasite is covered with small and numerous cilia, which ensure its movement. Unlike cysts, vegetative ciliates are less stable in the external environment. Outside the host organism, they die after 3-5 hours. In 70-80% of cases, the spreaders of protozoal infection are pigs. And only in caustic cases they become people.
The mortality rate for balantidiasis is quite high, and is 10-30%. Mortality is due to the rapid progression of pathology and the development of severe complications. The causative agent of balantidiasis is the ciliary ciliate Balantidium coli. Balantidia are the largest representatives of intestinal protozoa that can parasitize in the human body. Their life cycle takes place in 2 phases - cystic and vegetative.
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